Diabetes type 1 and type 2 definition and facts. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar glucose levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes as it will be in this article was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world.
Elevated levels of blood glucose hyperglycemia lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine. Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level.
When the blood glucose elevates for example, after eating foodinsulin advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms released from the pancreas to normalize the glucose level by promoting the uptake of glucose into body cells. In patients with diabetes, the absence of insufficient production of or lack of response to insulin causes hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a chronic medical condition, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime. How many people in the US have diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes can be similar in type 1 diabetes, typically diagnosed in children and teens, and type 2 diabetes, which most often occurs in adults.
Symptoms of any type of diabetes are related to high blood and urine glucose levels and include. How do I know if I have diabetes? In type 2 diabetes, there also is a steady decline of beta cells that adds to the process of elevated blood sugars. Essentially, if someone is resistant to insulin, advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms, the body can, to some degree, increase production of insulin and overcome the level of resistance.
After time, if production decreases and insulin cannot be released as vigorously, hyperglycemia develops, advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms. Glucose is a simple sugar found in food. Glucose is an essential nutrient that provides energy for the proper functioning of the body cells. Carbohydrates are broken down in the small intestine and the glucose in digested food is then absorbed by the intestinal cells into the bloodstream, and is carried by the bloodstream to all the affect macrobid side in the body where it is utilized.
However, glucose cannot enter the cells alone and needs insulin to aid in its transport into the advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms. Without insulin, the cells become starved of glucose energy despite the presence of abundant glucose in the bloodstream.
The abundant, unutilized glucose is wastefully excreted in the urine. Insulin is a hormone that is produced by specialized cells beta cells of the pancreas. The pancreas is a deep-seated organ in the abdomen located behind the stomach. In addition to helping glucose enter the cells, insulin is also important in tightly regulating the level of glucose in the blood.
After a meal, the blood glucose level rises. In response to the increased glucose level, the pancreas normally releases more insulin into the bloodstream to help glucose enter the cells and lower blood glucose levels after a meal. When the blood glucose levels are lowered, the insulin release from the pancreas is turned down. It is important to note that even in the fasting state there is a low steady release of insulin than fluctuates a bit and helps to maintain a steady blood sugar level during fasting.
In normal individuals, such a regulatory system helps to keep blood glucose levels in a tightly controlled range. All of these factors cause elevated levels of blood glucose hyperglycemia. What are the risk factors for diabetes?
Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are not as well understood as those for type 2 diabetes. Family history is a known risk factor for type 1 diabetes. Other risk factors can include having certain infections or diseases of the pancreas.
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are many. The following can raise your risk of developing type 2 diabetes:. What are the different types of diabetes? There are two major types of diabetes, advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms, called type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes was also formerly called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus IDDMor juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus. In type 1 diabetes, advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms, the pancreas undergoes an autoimmune attack by the body itself, and is rendered incapable of making insulin.
Abnormal antibodies have been found in the majority of patients with type 1 diabetes. The patient with type 1 diabetes must rely on insulin medication for survival. What is type 1 diabetes? In persons with type 1 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas, which are responsible for insulin production, are attacked by the misdirected immune system.
It is believed that the tendency to develop abnormal antibodies in type 1 diabetes is, in part, genetically inherited, though the details are not fully understood. Exposure to certain viral infections mumps and Coxsackie viruses or other environmental toxins may serve to trigger abnormal antibody responses that advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms damage to the pancreas cells where insulin is made.
Some of the antibodies seen in type 1 diabetes include anti-islet cell antibodies, anti-insulin antibodies and anti-glutamic decarboxylase antibodies. These antibodies can be detected in the majority of patients, and may help determine which individuals are at risk for developing type 1 diabetes.
At present, the American Diabetes Association does not recommend general screening of the population for type 1 diabetes, though screening of high risk individuals, such as those with a first degree relative sibling or parent with type 1 diabetes should be encouraged. Type 1 diabetes tends to occur in young, advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms, lean individuals, usually before 30 years of age; however, older patients do present with this form of diabetes on occasion.
This subgroup is referred to as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults LADA. LADA is a slow, progressive form of type 1 diabetes. What is type 2 diabetes.
In many cases this actually means the pancreas produces larger than normal quantities of insulin. A major feature of type 2 diabetes is a lack of sensitivity to insulin by the cells of the body particularly fat and muscle cells. In addition to the problems with an increase in insulin resistancethe release of insulin by the pancreas may also be defective and suboptimal.
In fact, there is a known steady decline in beta cell production of insulin in type 2 diabetes that contributes to worsening glucose control. This is a major factor for many patients with type 2 diabetes who ultimately require insulin therapy. Finally, the liver in these patients continues to produce glucose through a process called gluconeogenesis despite elevated glucose levels.
The control of gluconeogenesis becomes compromised. While it is said that type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in individuals over 30 years old and the incidence increases with advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms, an alarming number of patients with type 2 diabetes are barely in their teen years. Most of these cases are a direct result of poor eating habits, higher body weight, and lack of exercise.
While there is a strong genetic component to developing this form of diabetes, there are other risk factors - the most significant of which is obesity. There is a direct relationship between the degree of obesity and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and this holds true in children as well as adults. Regarding age, data shows that for each decade after 40 years of age regardless of weight there is an increase in incidence of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is also more common in certain ethnic groups.
Finally, diabetes occurs much more frequently in women with a prior history of diabetes that develops during pregnancy gestational diabetes. What are the other types of diabetes? Significant hormonal changes during pregnancy can lead to blood sugar elevation in genetically predisposed individuals. Blood sugar elevation during pregnancy is called gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes usually resolves once the baby is born. Women with gestational diabetes are usually asked to undergo an oral glucose tolerance test about six weeks after giving birth to determine if their diabetes has persisted beyond the pregnancy, or if any evidence such as impaired glucose tolerance is present that may be a clue to a risk for developing diabetes.
Secondary diabetes may develop when the pancreatic tissue responsible for the production of insulin is destroyed by disease, such as chronic pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas by toxins like excessive alcoholtraumaor surgical removal of the pancreas, advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms. In acromegaly, a pituitary gland tumor at the base of the brain causes excessive advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms of growth hormone, leading to hyperglycemia, advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms.
Certain medications may worsen diabetes control, advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms, or "unmask" latent diabetes. This is seen most commonly advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms steroid medications such as prednisone are taken and also with medications used in the treatment of HIV infection AIDS. What kind of doctor treats diabetes? Endocrinology is the specialty of medicine that deals with hormone disturbances, and both endocrinologists and pediatric endocrinologists manage patients with diabetes.
People with diabetes may also be treated by family medicine or internal medicine specialists. When complications arise, people with diabetes may be treated by other specialists, including neurologists, gastroenterologists, ophthalmologists, surgeons, cardiologists, or others. How is diabetes diagnosed? The fasting blood glucose sugar test is the preferred way to diagnose diabetes.
It is easy to perform and convenient. After the person has fasted overnight at least 8 hoursa single sample of blood is drawn and sent to the laboratory for analysis, advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms. While patients with IFG or prediabetes do not have the diagnosis of diabetes, this condition carries with it its own risks and concerns, and is addressed elsewhere. Advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms not routinely used any longer, the oral glucose tolerance test OGTT is a gold standard for making the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
It is still commonly used for diagnosing gestational diabetes and in conditions of pre-diabetes, such as polycystic ovary syndrome. With an oral glucose tolerance test, the person fasts overnight at least eight but not more than 16 hours. Then first, the fasting plasma glucose is tested, advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms. After this test, the person receives an oral dose 75 grams of glucose. There are several methods employed by obstetricians to do this test, but the one described here is standard.
Usually, the glucose is in a sweet-tasting liquid that the person drinks. Blood samples are taken at specific intervals to measure the blood glucose. The classic oral glucose tolerance test measures blood glucose levels five times over a period of three hours. Some physicians simply get a baseline blood sample followed by a sample two hours after drinking the glucose solution. In a person without diabetes, the glucose levels rise and then fall quickly. In someone with diabetes, glucose levels rise higher than normal and fail to come back down as fast.
People with glucose levels between normal and diabetic have advanced type 11 diabetes symptoms glucose tolerance IGT or insulin resistance.